- Several large Secure Endpoints clients were experiencing significant upgrade problems with MIT Kerberos for Windows due to backward compatibility problems between versions 2.6.x and 3.x. The problems were due to what is affectionately known as DLL Hell. Applications built against old versions of KFW do not work with newer versions and vice versa because the list of function exports and the ordinal bindings changed. To make matters worse, it isn't possible to have more than one version of KFW installed on a system at any given time. This is because KFW libraries must be installed in a directory listed in the system PATH environment variable. To address this problem Secure Endpoints issued a proposal to MIT in July 2008 that KFW be converted to use Windows Side-by-side Assemblies. This proposal along with others to improve Network Identity Manager went over like a lead balloon at the Kerberos Consortium.
- Secure Endpoints began work on incorporating Hardware Secure Modules such as Thales' nShield into a Kerberized Certificate Authority that could be approved of by The Americas Grid Policy Management Authority. TAGPMA requires that all certificate authorities store their keys in hardware. This naturally led us to wonder if we could do the same for a Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC). Heimdal already supported the OpenSSL crypto library which could be used with the nShield HSM. Asanka presented our ideas at the 2009 AFS and Kerberos BPW.
- Finally, OpenAFS needed a number of changes to Kerberos and GSS-API in order to be able to implement the rxgk security class. There have been numerous presentations on the need for rxgk over the years. Love gave a talk in 2007, Simon gave one in 2010, and another in 2011. In fact, the rxgk work began back in 2004 at an AFS hackathon in Sweden. Implementing rxgk requires that all supported platforms provide a Kerberos Crypto Framework (RFC 3961) and the GSS Pseudo-Random Function (RFC 4401). MIT Kerberos doesn't export a 3961 compatible crypto framework in any version and with the failure to put any resources behind the Windows product there was no GSS PRF support. The OpenAFS development community has found the Kerberos Consortium quite difficult to work with whereas Heimdal welcomed the proposed changes with open arms. Heimdal redesigned their repository layout to make it possible for OpenAFS to import core functionality such as the cross-platform compatibility library libroken, the hcrypto library, and the rfc3961 framework. This in turn permits OpenAFS developers to focus on building a best of breed distributed file system and avoid the need to build and support a Kerberos v5 and GSS-API implementation. Heimdal is more than just a Kerberos implementation which will permit OpenAFS to more easily support non-Kerberos authentication mechanisms once rxgk is deployed.
For developers, Secure Endpoints is now distributing a Kerberos Compatibility SDK that will permit applications to be developed which can work seamlessly regardless of whether Heimdal or MIT Kerberos in installed on the system. OpenAFS and all future Secure Endpoints applications such as Network Identity Manager and the Kerberized Certificate Authority will be built against this SDK. Applications built against the SDK first search for a compatible Heimdal assembly. If an assembly is not installed on the system, KFW DLLs are searched for in the PATH and manually loaded.
One important difference between Heimdal and KFW related to how credential caches and keytabs are implemented. Instead of compiling all supported cache and keytab types into the Heimdal libraries, Heimdal loads credential caches and keytabs as registered plug-ins. This permits weak cache and keytab implementations to be removed on systems where they shouldn't be supported and permits new implementations to be developed independently of the Heimdal distributions. This functionality is going to become very useful for OpenAFS users on Microsoft Windows now that OpenAFS 1.7.x includes native authentication groups. For the first time it will be possible to develop secure Kerberos credentials cache and keytab implementations whose contents become accessible to processes that are impersonating other processes something that has only been possible with the Microsoft Kerberos SSP up to this point.
All in all, the release of Heimdal for Microsoft Windows is an important step forward.